Starting with the Planck length , the enormous dimensions in the microcosm provide ample space for particles, charges,
photons. These elements, in fact are already formed in the smallest plane in the Planck sphere. Therefore, the microcosm
is like an ocean of microscopic particles and radiation.
In the macroscopic length scale in the laboratory we only can study large concentrations of these elements. In
experiments, indeed, we observe the existence of tiny particles or radiation seemingly to arise out of nowhere and
disappear again. Therefore we call them virtual particles or vacuum fluctuations. However, also these particles are already
large collections of quantum objects, which we will discuss in the following chapters.
In the following chapters, equations are derived to make certain connections clear. Here, the Planck length
wasn't used in order to ensure clarity. The multiplication by the number one in the Planck length has no effect
on the numerical values. During the comparison of equations derived with CODATA values, however, the
Planck length is included in the extension with the orders of ten.