sample excerpts

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Starting with the Planck length *, *the enormous dimensions in the microcosm provide ample space for particles, charges,

photons. These elements, in fact are already formed in the smallest plane in the Planck sphere. Therefore, the microcosm

is like an ocean of microscopic particles and radiation.

In the macroscopic length scale in the laboratory we only can study large concentrations of these elements. In

experiments, indeed, we observe the existence of tiny particles or radiation seemingly to arise out of nowhere and

disappear again. Therefore we call them virtual particles or vacuum fluctuations. However, also these particles are already

large collections of quantum objects, which we will discuss in the following chapters.