sample excerpts

Note: Mathematical formulae are not represented in this page bacause they cannot be displayed correct.

The global formula consists of a few elements. The modified Planck constant can be derived from the speed of light, and

the attraction of the space balls, which holds together the entire universe, is static. Thus, the speed of light as a time factor

is the basic dynamic element in the universe.

In the universe a universal quantized time is ticking at a constant clock rate. This time factor is hidden in the constant

speed of light and all physical quantum events follow this time factor. There is no absolute time in the universe, but every

event in the smallest dimension occurs with the speed of light and thus follows the time factor in this fundamental constant

of nature. This time factor is somewhat of a parameter, which allows to adjust the distribution of the quantized energy and

the dynamics of the universe.

All physical processes in the universe are energy conversions, and the laws of nature do explain the underlying dynamics.

Changing the value of the speed of light produces a universe with different physical laws, even with the same attraction

force in the space balls.

The laws of nature are therefore based on this universal time factor. In the universe, the time factor is adjusted with the

speed of light in order to generate the quantized action h. And all physical processes are based on the transmission of this

action in the space.

The speed of light is defined as a natural constant, and it serves as a time factor in quantum occurrences. However, the

light itself is not the universal clock in form of a "light clock", but the speed of light is formed from a timer, and includes the

universal time factor in itself.

How does the time factor work with the speed of light? Therefore, we do break down the value of c to its constituents

and obtain the following equation (4-1):

Space dimension and time factor

Charge interaction

Sum of the charge interaction between 2 charges and time factor

Quantized charge, which we already know:

Timing Cycle (explanation follows in the next Chapter:

Interaction of the space balls per space dimension:

We add the individual members of the equation (4-1) for the speed of light and receive the following values:

299.700.000,000000000000000 1. Chain

92.393,840292159000000 2. Chain

n

1 57,730759555672500 Sum

2 5,773075955567250

3 0,577307595556725

4 0,057730759555673

5 0,005773075955567

6 0,000577307595557

7 0,000057730759556

+

299.792.457,98557400000

0,014425933361054

For the speed of light we do obtain with an n = 1 to 7, a fairly exact match with the literature value. And as it can be seen,

also the light is not able to ever reach the speed of light, but it converges to the value of literature as a limit.

To derive the speed of light with an equation has a profound impact on our physical world system.

All physical quantum events strongly depend on this fundamental constant of nature as a dynamic element. According to

this derivation; the physical events in the universe, and thus the universe as a whole, is based on charge interactions and a

universal clock.

This equation shows us how electromagnetic waves propagate in space and how the interaction of the charges does take

place. Here, the equation must be considered from right:

What information can we also gather from this equation?

- The equation describes the factors on which the speed of light depends namely on the interaction between the charges

and the quantized time factor. So, it depends on the space with its three-dimensionality- including charges- and from the

quantized timing cycle.

- The value of the speed of light converges to the literature as a limit value, because of the infinite sequence of time factor

and the sum term. All physical events, which are based on the speed of light, therefore also do converge against a

particular value, and have their origin in the smallest level.

- Even though for the speed of light, the distance made is enormous with about 300 million meters, as compared to the

time of only 1 second which it requires this distance, it can be seen in this equation that the time factor in the speed of light

is actually plays a larger role. The high value of the speed of light occurs because -compared to the quantized time- our

second lasts very long.

- The speed of light is based on factors that take place in the smallest dimensions and that sum up, up to our macroscopic

level.

- The derived equation confirms the fact which is well-known since two centuries that electromagnetic waves are caused

by charge interactions. With light or electromagnetic waves, pulse is transmitted in space, and these are charge

interactions as in the atoms caused by electrons. A photon is thus the little brother of the electron.

- With the derivation of these fundamental constants of nature, it is possible to analyze the nature of time.