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The expansion of the universe

Between the galaxy clusters, there are huge "empty" cavities, the so-called voids, with an average diameter of 100 million  
light years. The universe has a honeycomb structure on large scales, a kind of bubble structure, which we will call a  
"space bubble" in this study.

At the overlapping regions of the space bubbles, concentrations of visible (atoms) and invisible (dark) matter occurs,  
which, over long periods ultimately produce our known galaxy.

Despite a uniform distribution of quantized particles in the space bubbles,  galaxy clusters are formed at their edges, which  
are pushed together by the giant space bubbles. This is also observable in the expansion of the universe. It is known that  
the galaxies do not attract each other gravitationally over very long distance, but by the expansion of space between them,  
are pushed to each other.

Figure:  Clusters of galaxies between the space bubbles  

In the overlapping areas between the space bubbles more interaction occurs between radiation, matter and charges, as in  
other areas of space bubbles. At even greater length scales, the filaments, as the largest known structures in the universe,  
are the result of this phenomenon.

Here, one space bubble does not penetrate another, but by the expansion of the space bubbles, permanently radiation  
(dark energy) and mini particles (dark material) are pushed to the edges of the space bubbles. There, they collide with  
each other to a greater accumulation, which still form larger particles, which then produce the stars and galaxies as  
interstellar gas clouds.

The giant space bubbles are the birthplace of new microscopic particles and radiation, and thus of future galaxies. They  
are like giant "white holes", and its products migrate over long periods of time and distances in space and finally form  
the galaxies at the edges of the space bubbles. In this space bubbles still immeasurably many germs are present for the  
formation of new particles for the future galaxies.

Due to lack of density no gravitational attraction acts between these quantized particles. The area with the space bubbles  
is similar to the area in the smallest plane. It lacks the necessary density and thus it cannot contribute to gravity. In its  
place, a new fundamental force that is responsible for the expansion of the universe occurs. We will learn more about  
these expansion forces in the next Chapter.

The expansion of the universe is often clearly explained with a filled balloon. Here, immeasurably many space bubbles  
exist in the universe, which as the individual balloons effect the expansion of the universe and bring the filaments as the  
largest known structures in the universe. Instead of using only a balloon, the universe can also be explained with countless,  
expanding space bubbles as "balloons".

Even the big bang is explained in accordance to the "balloon model". But there was no big bang, and the universe; in the  
long term is in equilibrium through continuous space creation and space destruction in the black holes.

The disorder of the balance is compensated for very long periods, resulting in a rapid expansion with the formation of  
more black holes in the micro and macrocosm compensates by increasing contraction again. Viewed over very long  
periods;  the universe pulsates with its expansion and contraction.

The expansion and the subsequent contraction are not as strong as shown here for illustration. The universe does not  
shrink together up to half its size.

With this expansion curve the pitch is varying. The accelerated expansion determined during astronomical observations  
results from the increase rate of the expansion curve. With the passage of time, the gradient rate decreases and decreases  
again after the maximum. The universe is currently seems to be on an expanding course and in billions of years, it could be  
observed an accelerated shrinking of the universe.

The astronomical observations with the expansion of the universe and the background radiation, which are called the  
evidence for the Big Bang, can also be explained with the new world model. The background radiation is the result of  
dynamic processes in the smallest dimensions of the space, which were explained in the previous Chapter in the space  
creation.  Their uniform distribution and minimal density variations are also consistent with the new model and can be  
described as a result of dark energy and dark matter.

The processes described in the Big Bang theory at the beginning of the universe with the development of radiation,  
particles, etc. do also take permanently place in a similar way in the smallest dimensions in space development.   
Therefore, no "big bang" is needed in order to explain the expansion of the universe. Instead of the single huge explosion  
with the Big Bang, permanently and unspectacular new space is created the universe, which is responsible for the  
expansion of the universe.

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