sample excerpts

Note: Mathematical formulae are not represented in this page bacause they cannot be displayed correct.

Each space ball exerts an attraction in the form of magnetism on the neighboring space balls. Through external factors, for

example by pulse power, the space balls can be brought into rotation, and as we saw in the last Chapter causes the

polarity.

The charge of the electron is defined as elementary charge. The electron only carries half the charge in an atom and the

other half of the charge s carried by the proton. The correlation between the elementary charge e and the quantized

charge can formulate as follows:

(2-1)

(2-2)

And this corresponds to the following relationship:

(2-3)

For the quantized charge of a space ball, we get:

(2-4)

And this is equivalent to:

(2-5)

The charge of an electron as an elementary charge, according to CODATA is:

.

With the above equation (2-6) we obtain the value for the elementary charge with

.

The deviation from the CODATA value is

In the measurement of the electron elementary charge in the small length scales of up to, several factors have to be

considered. In addition to the influence of the geomagnetic field, the local acceleration and the gravity, the influences of the

measuring apparatus on the test object must also be considered.

The primary magnetism in the space balls with disturbance produced by external influences creates charges. Pictorially this

can be thought as a dynamo. Every movement of the dynamo causes magnetic interaction with its environment. A rotating

space ball makes adjacent balls rotate with its magnetic field and thereby power is spent. This power transmission and

energy transfer between the space balls is called as quantized charge.

In actual fact, magnetism is transmitted in form of magnetic force. In our macroscopic dimension it is possible to move

loads with magnetism and the electric current from the wall outlet is due to this principle. Moving charges in turn cause

magnetism. Therefore, it is seen that charges are the transport of magnetism.